A List of 112 Foods High In Oxalate (Oxalic Acid)

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Oxalate (oxalic acid) is a compound found in a wide range of plant foods, and it is often called an antinutrient.

Although oxalate can be problematic for certain individuals, it is usually not a concern for most healthy people, and the idea that everyone needs to avoid oxalate is a common nutrition myth.

In fact, normal metabolic processes in the body create oxalate whether we consume it within our diet or not (1).

However, an excessive intake of oxalate may potentially increase the risk of kidney stones for people prone to the condition.

According to the National Kidney Foundation, people at risk for kidney disease or who have a history of kidney stones should limit consumption of oxalate-rich food (2).

This article provides a list of foods high in oxalate.

Foods High In Oxalate

Molecular Structure of Oxalate (Oxalic Acid).

It is notoriously difficult to find the accurate oxalate content of different foods. For this reason, this guide collates reliable data from numerous sources to provide a comprehensive listing.

The data for this list comes from datasets provided by Harvard School of Public Health.

Additionally, research on oxalate concentrations in vegetables, published by the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, helped to provide more extensive data.

These data have been adapted into uniform serving sizes wherever possible.

For each food group, you can see the foods with the most oxalate in descending order. The values are for foods in their raw state unless otherwise stated.

Generally, foods that contain more than 10 mg oxalate per serving are classed as ‘high oxalate’ foods (3).

Beverages

Before we look at foods, here are some popular drinks that have oxalate data available.

Drink Serving Size Oxalate Content
Hot Chocolate 1 cup 65 mg
Carrot Juice 1 cup 27 mg
V8 Juice 1 cup 18 mg
Tomato Juice 1 cup 14 mg
Brewed Tea 1 cup 14 mg
Rice Dream 1 cup 13 mg

In addition to the above beverages, any drink made from oxalate-rich fruits or vegetables will also contain high amounts.

For example, green smoothies featuring vegetables like spinach and swiss chard can contain significant oxalate concentrations.

Additionally, plant-based “milk” made from nuts will also provide large amounts of oxalate.

Condiments

Condiment Serving Size Oxalate Content
Miso 1 cup 40 mg
Stuffing 1 cup 36 mg
Tahini 1 tbsp 16 mg
Peanut Butter 1 tbsp 13 mg

Soy products are a significant source of oxalic acid, so in addition to miso, soy-based condiments/dishes like natto, cheonggukjang, and tempeh will contain high amounts.

Furthermore, other nut butter made from almonds, pistachios, and other nuts will be high in oxalate.

Dried Fruit

Dried Fruit Serving Size Oxalate Content
Dried Pineapple ½ cup 30 mg
Dried Figs 5 pieces 24 mg
Dried Prunes 5 prunes 11 mg

As shown above, dried figs, pineapple, and prunes contain relatively high amounts of oxalate.

Furthermore, any dried versions of oxalate-rich fresh fruit (see next section) will also contain high concentrations.

Fruit

Fruit Serving Size Oxalate Content
Raspberries 1 cup 48 mg
Orange 1 fruit 29 mg
Dates 1 date 24 mg
Grapefruit 1 fruit 24 mg
Avocado 1 fruit 19 mg
Olives 10 olives 18 mg
Kiwi 1 fruit 16 mg
Tangerine 1 Fruit 10 mg

Raspberries are the most significant fruit source of oxalate.

Additionally, it is worth noting that citrus fruits contain significant concentrations of oxalic acid in their peel.

Grains, Flours, and Powders

Food Serving Size Oxalate Content
Rice Bran 1 cup 281 mg
Buckwheat Groats 1 cup 133 mg
Wheat Berries (cooked) 1 cup 98 mg
Corn Grits 1 cup 97 mg
Soy Flour 1 cup 94 mg
Bulgur (cooked) 1 cup 86 mg
Cocoa Powder 4 tsp 67 mg
Brown Rice Flour 1 cup 65 mg
Cornmeal 1 cup 64 mg
Millet (cooked) 1 cup 62 mg
Whole Grain Wheat Flour 1 cup 29 mg
Soy Protein Isolate 1 oz (28 g) 27 mg
Brown Rice (cooked) 1 cup 24 mg
Lasagna Pasta 1 serving 23 mg
All-Purpose Flour 1 cup 17 mg
Couscous 1 cup 15 mg
Spaghetti Pasta 1 cup 11 mg
White Rice Flour 1 cup 11 mg

In addition to these raw ingredients, any manufactured/pre-made foods that contain them are likely a large source of oxalate.

Here is a list of possible examples;

  • Bread
  • Cakes
  • Chocolate bars
  • Cookies
  • Pancakes
  • Pastries
  • Pizza

Packaged Cereal Products

Wide Variety of Cereals High In Oxalates On Supermarket Aisle.

As a significant source of grains, the majority of cereal products will contain high amounts of oxalate.

Here is a breakdown of the oxalate data that is available for popular cereal brands.

General Mills

Cereal Serving Size Oxalate Content
Raisin Nut Bran 1 cup 57 mg
Multi-Bran Chex 1 cup 36 mg
Total Raisin Bran 1 cup 31 mg
Fiber One 1 cup 26 mg
100% Granola Oats Honey 1 cup 26 mg
Oatmeal Crisp w/ Almonds 1 cup 24 mg
Honey Nut Clusters 1 cup 23 mg
Low-Fat 100% Granola 1 cup 20 mg
Wheaties Raisin Bran 1 cup 11 mg

Kashi

Cereal Serving Size Oxalate Content
Go Lean 1 cup 18 mg
Good Friends 1 cup 13 mg
Puffed Kashi 1 cup 13 mg

Kellogg’s

Cereal Serving Size Oxalate Content
Raisin Square Mini-Wheats 1 cup 55 mg
All-Bran Original 1 cup 52 mg
Raisin Bran 1 cup 46 mg
Complete Wheat Bran Flakes 1 cup 45 mg
All-Bran Buds 1 cup 40 mg
Muesli Apple & Almond 1 cup 30 mg
Frosted Mini-Wheats 1 cup 28 mg
Raisin Bran Crunch 1 cup 27 mg
Low-Fat Granola Raisin 1 cup 24 mg
Mueslix 1 cup 23 mg
All-Bran Extra Fiber 1 cup 22 mg
Cracklin’ Oat Bran 1 cup 13 mg
Smart Start 1 cup 15 mg
Cocoa Krispies 1 cup 15 mg
Just Right Fruit & Nut 1 cup 13 mg

Post

Cereal Serving Size Oxalate Content
100% Bran 1 cup 75 mg
40% Bran 1 cup 48 mg
Spoonsize Shredded Wheat 1 cup 45 mg
Shredded Wheat 1 cup 42 mg
Cranberry Almond Crunch 1 cup 35 mg
Grape Nuts 1 cup 28 mg
Great Grains Crunch Pecan 1 cup 27 mg
Great Grains Raisin & Date 1 cup 25 mg
Banana Nut Crunch 1 cup 23 mg

Other

Cereal Serving Size Oxalate Content
Corn Grits 1 cup 97 mg
Red River Cereal 1 cup 52 mg
Nabisco Honey Shredded Wheat 1 cup 47 mg
Nabisco Shredded Wheat 2 biscuits 42 mg
Cream of Wheat 1 cup 18 mg
Farina Cereal 1 cup 16 mg

Nuts

Nuts contain a substantial amount of oxalate even in relatively small amounts.

Here is a look at the available data.

Nut Serving Size Oxalate Content
Almonds 1 oz (28 g) 122 mg
Cashew Nuts 1 oz (28 g) 49 mg
Mixed Nuts 1 oz (28 g) 39 mg
Peanuts 1 oz (28 g) 27 mg
Trail Mix 1 oz (28 g) 15 mg
Pistachios 1 oz (28 g) 14 mg
Pecans 1 oz (28 g) 10 mg

Walnuts (and other nuts) will also contain oxalate in varying concentrations.

Additionally, be aware of nut products such as almond flour, nut butter, and any kind of food with nut ingredients.

Vegan Proteins

Some popular vegan-friendly protein options contain oxalate due to their soy content.

However, the available data for this group is not significant, and the amounts may vary depending upon brand/specific ingredients.

Vegan Product Serving Size Oxalate Content
Vegan Burger 1 Patty 24 mg
Tofu 3.5 oz (100 g) 13 mg
Soy Burger 3.5 oz (100 g) 12 mg

Vegetables (and Beans)

Bundle of Spinach Leaves Held Together By String.

In this section, you can see the available data on the oxalate content of various vegetables.

Remember that only the foods that have available (and reliable) data are here.

Vegetable Serving Size Oxalate Content
Spinach (cooked) 1 cup 1510 mg
Rhubarb 1 cup 1082 mg
Okra 1 cup 1014 mg
Spinach (raw) 1 cup 656 mg
Beet Greens 1 cup 500 mg
Red Swiss Chard 1 cup 420 mg
Green Swiss Chard 1 cup 347 mg
Beets 1 cup 152 mg
Navy Beans 1 cup 152 mg
Baked Potato w/ skin 1 medium 97 mg
Rutabaga 1 cup 62 mg
Turnip 1 cup 60 mg
Fava Beans 1 cup 40 mg
Bamboo Shoots 1 cup 35 mg
Tomato Sauce 1 cup 34 mg
Refried Beans 1 cup 32 mg
Parsnip 1 cup 30 mg
Red Kidney Beans 1 cup 30 mg
Sweet Potato 1 cup 28 mg
Carrots 1 large carrot 20 mg
Celery (cooked) 1 cup 10 mg
Collards 1 cup 10 mg

What Is a Low-Oxalate Diet?

Low-oxalate diets are frequently characterized as being <100 mg per day (4).

However, this classification can vary, and some research suggests that individuals at risk should limit oxalate to <50 mg (5, 6).

Of course, anyone who feels they need to limit oxalate should do so after consulting with their dietitian or medical physician.

Additionally, there is no need for most healthy people to limit oxalate, and many oxalate-rich foods are healthy and nutrient-dense.

Final Thoughts

This guide provided a list showing foods that contain high amounts of oxalate.

Once again, these are the most common oxalate-rich foods which had reliable data available.

However, this does not mean that food not mentioned on this list is definitely low in oxalate.

Overall, the highest oxalate foods include almonds, grains, and vegetables such as spinach, beet greens, and rhubarb.

Lastly, it is worth remembering that just because food has a high oxalate content doesn’t mean it is unhealthy.

For more articles on popular nutritional topics, see here.

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Jeannie
Jeannie
1 month ago

I need a high fiber diet because of other issues so what can I eat that isn’t high in oxalates like greens?

Last edited 1 month ago by Jeannie
Diana
Diana
2 months ago

Great article, but very sad for us vegans. It takes away most high protein high fiber grains and beans — really starches in general. Even potatoes. Those are the mainstays of a healthy diet. Is quinoa ok? Oats? Other whole grains, or are all grains bad?

Susan cook
Susan cook
2 months ago

What’s an alternative to almond milk since I don’t drink dairy?

Merk fern
Merk fern
2 months ago

How about kale or all lettuce? Are they lower in Oxalates than spinach ?

Kelly Clover
Kelly Clover
8 months ago

I eat spinach all the time. According to your list it’s one of the absolute worst. I heard a YouTube video blaming oxalates for arthritis. I don’t know what to make of it. You can’t believe everything you hear.

Shameer Mulji
Shameer Mulji
10 months ago

It says the oxalate content for sweet potato is 28mg per cup. Is that cooked or raw?

mohammad kazemi
mohammad kazemi
10 months ago
Reply to  Michael Joseph

so would cooked contain less?

Janet
Janet
1 month ago
Reply to  Michael Joseph

I’m confused. How can cooked spinach contain such a higher oxalate amount than raw spinach if cooking can reduce oxalate content in foods?

Tricia Merrifield
Tricia Merrifield
11 months ago

Very useful information for me as I have recently become aware that my kidney function has decreased considerably (original damage due to the prescription drug Lithium). Can see from the list what has caused the deterioration and can now adjust my diet accordingly. I have been eating too many nuts and dried fruit alongside foods which are considered ‘healthy’ but are actually high in potassium ie bananas ,avocado pears so a disastrous combination for kidneys which are less than 100%. Thank you very much.

Tami
Tami
1 year ago

Spinach and other greens such as chard, beet, and turnip all bother me…A LOT! I mean, they go straight thru me, and causing cramping and bloating. With spinach, chard and beet greens being worst. However turnip and mustard greens burn my stomach horribly and also then, I bloat and they go straight thru me. I live in the bathroom if I eat *healthy*, per what my Drs advise. I simply cannot. So, I wonder, IS it the oxalates? At least for the spinach, chard and beet greens? IDK about the others.

Tami
Tami
1 year ago
Reply to  Michael Joseph

I’ve seen so many doctors in the 40+ years I’ve had this issue and they have no answers, so I just avoid these foods, even though they tell me “but you should be eating green, leafy…” even though they go through me in 10 minutes!

MattAllel
MattAllel
10 months ago
Reply to  Tami

You can easily find out yourself by simply doing different diets for measured times. Eliminate the foods you suspect for a couple of weeks, see how you feel, then really load up on those same foods and see how you feel. I find that kind of experiment has worked much better for me than depending on lab tests.

Scott
Scott
1 year ago
Reply to  Tami

Fruit is the way to go!

Kelley
Kelley
1 year ago

1 cup cooked spinach has more than double the oxalate content vs. 1 cup raw, which is confusing because I have read repeatedly in other articles that cooking spinach decreases oxalates… I think it’s important to note that if you take one cup of raw spinach and cook it, you will have less than 1/4 cup of cooked spinach, so 1 cup of cooked spinach is more than 4 cups of raw! In any case, we can just remember that spinach should be avoided on this diet.

Marion
Marion
1 year ago
Reply to  Kelley

Remember, it takes a lot of spinach to produce one cup of cooked spinach. It’s cooks down considerably. The oxalate content of the spinach remains unchanged – it’s the density of the spinach that has changed.

Jeannie
Jeannie
1 year ago

What about almond milk?

Jeannie
Jeannie
1 year ago
Reply to  Jeannie

What about beef, pork, lamb, chicken, fish, cheese, butter?

Leslie
Leslie
1 year ago

Wow, saag made with various greens..spinach, chard, collards… must be off the charts. That is sad.

Audrey Edmond
Audrey Edmond
1 year ago

Thank you for this comprehensive list. I have kidney stones composed of calcium oxalate and was told by my Urologist to avoid Oxalate. I believe I would fall into the category of <50mg/day.

Sandy
Sandy
1 year ago
Reply to  Michael Joseph

Unfortunately my husband has kidney stones as well. He was told to avoid oxalate in his diet but we are having difficulty meal planning. This list of high oxalate foods is pretty extensive. What foods are ok to eat on a low oxalate diet.

walt
walt
10 months ago
Reply to  Sandy

New studies by the experts on stone formations (If they are correct) have shown that consuming calcium foods with oxalate rich foods may neutralize the causes of stones.

JBK
JBK
1 year ago
Reply to  Audrey Edmond

Look on the bright side, at least your keeping yourself informed AND you can still have Avocados 👍🏻👍🏻