The Top 100 Foods High In Polyphenols

Polyphenols are bioactive compounds present in a wide range of plant-based foods.

We can often hear discussion about “high polyphenol” sources in the media, with familiar mentions including blueberries and cocoa.

For those curious about which foods have the most polyphenols, now you can find out. In a scientific publication in the journal Nature, researchers identified the 100 most polyphenol-rich dietary sources (1).

Based on this research, this article presents the top 100 dietary sources of polyphenols.

Various foods that are high in polyphenols on a black surface. Includes coffee beans, dark chocolate, and star anise.

Foods High In Polyphenols

Below, in descending order, you will find a list of foods high in polyphenols, alongside a brief summary of each food (1).

1. Cloves (15,188 mg per 100g)

A Picture of Polyphenol-rich Cloves.

Cloves represent the highest dietary food source of polyphenols.

In terms of their appearance, cloves look like little brown wooden sticks and they don’t appear particularly appetizing.

However, used as a seasoning, cloves pack a powerful punch in the health—and taste—department.

In fact, their taste is as confusing as it is strong, and features contrasting warm, spicy, bitter, and even slightly sweet flavors.

2. Dried Peppermint (11,960 mg per 100g)

In second place comes dried peppermint.

You may not know this, but peppermint is actually a hybrid of spearmint and watermint.

This popular herb is popular globally, and it contains a range of phenolic acids, flavones, and flavanones (2).

People enjoy peppermint in all kind of ways, and we can find its strong flavor in everything from chewing gum to herbal tea.

Due to its strong scent, it is also common to find in personal hygiene products such as shampoo and toothpaste.

3. Star Anise (5,460 mg per 100g)

There’s quite a large gap between the first two foods and star anise in terms, but this spice still contains a very large amount of polyphenols.

Star anise contains phenolic acids and a group of compounds known as hydroxyphenylpropenes (3).

Star anise tea is a popular way of consuming the spice and it works well for seasoning a diverse range of dishes.

Interestingly, star anise has a slight licorice flavor—a sweet and spicy taste—and its one that many people enjoy.

4. Cocoa Powder (3.448 mg per 100g)

Although it doesn’t have the highest absolute polyphenol content, cocoa is arguably the most significant dietary source so far, owing to its larger typical serving size.

Within cocoa, a wide array of polyphenolic compounds are present, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, and other groups (4).

Notably, controlled trials indicate that the compounds in cocoa may potentially help to protect against age-related diseases such as cardiovascular heart disease and dementia. This protective effects may be due to the polyphenols having a positive influence on controlling blood pressure, oxidative damage, and insulin sensitivity (5, 6).

Cocoa has an incredibly bitter taste, so people tend to consume it with sugar in some form of chocolate.

5. Mexican Oregano (2,319 mg per 100g)

Oregano is a delicious herb that boosts the flavor of any dish.

Picture of Mexican Oregano Herb on a White Surface.

It’s also one of the best food sources of polyphenols, offering a variety of flavanones, flavones, and flavonols (7).

However, there are some differences between Mediterranean and Mexican oregano, which are actually slightly different botanically.

Firstly, oregano from Mexico boasts a robust, deep and fuller taste, along with a slightly citrusy flavor.

Additionally, Mediterranean varieties, albeit varying from country to country, generally offer a milder taste.

6. Celery Seed (2.094 mg per 100g)

Celery seed has a long history of use for its purported health benefits.

First of all, celery seed is rich in flavonoids. Ongoing research from animal studies indicate potential anti-inflammatory and blood-pressure-lowering properties (8, 9).

However, there is currently limited research available from studies involving human participants.

Typically, people tend to consume these seeds in the form of celery seed tea, and supplements are also available.

Consuming the seeds raw is also an option, but they are not particularly tasty.

7. Black Chokeberry (1,756 mg per 100g)

The black chokeberry represents the first fruit—or even the first non-spice/herb—on this list.

These berries are incredibly high in polyphenols, and they contain an abundance of compounds called anthocyanins (10).

Anthocyanins are prevalent in blue to dark purple/black plant foods, providing blueberries, blackberries, and black chokeberries with their characteristic color.

For those with a sweet tooth, it might be advisable to avoid this one. Black chokeberries are renowned for their bitter taste.

8. Dark Chocolate (1,664 mg per 100g)

Dark chocolate is arguably the tastiest food so far, and it’s extremely rich in polyphenols too.

Containing the same compounds as cocoa, dark chocolate may also provide some of the same potential benefits.

While cocoa use dates back to the pre-Olmec people of Mexico, the modern adaptation into chocolate bars didn’t happen until the mid-19th century.

One thing to watch out for, though: not all dark chocolate is created equally.

Look for a minimum of 70% cocoa (preferably 85% +) for the full benefits; more polyphenols, and less sugar.

It is also worth noting that dark chocolate is high in fat and calories, thus consuming it requires moderation.

9. Flaxseed Meal (1,528 mg per 100g)

Fllaxseed Meal in a Serving Size Scoop Spoon.

Flaxseed meal refers to ground flaxseeds.

These seeds are rich in fiber, with particularly high levels of the nutrients thiamin, magnesium, phosphorus, manganese, and copper (11).

Their phytonutrient content is also impressive, with flax seeds providing a wealth of lignans and phenolic acids (12).

Flaxseeds have a distinct nutty taste, and although you can eat them whole, they are not particularly flavorful.

Consequently, people typically incorporate them into drinks or meals.

10. Black Elderberries (1,359 mg per 100g)

With a long and ancient history, black elderberries secure a place in the top 10 polyphenol-rich foods.

These little black berries grow around the world, and are most common in the United States and Europe.

With a substantial anthocyanin and flavonol content, black elderberries boast an incredibly tart and bitter taste (13).

From firsthand experience, consuming them alone can be quite challenging, which is why most people use them for various recipes.

Elderberries exhibit significant versatility, and people enjoy making them into jelly, wine, tea, syrup, and even elderberry pie.

11. Chestnut (1,215 mg per 100g)

Warm chestnuts on a cold winter day taste delicious.

They also offer numerous nutritional benefits. For example, chestnuts boast high levels of gallic and ellagic acids, both belonging to the phenolic acids category of polyphenols (14).

Despite technically being a nut, chestnuts differ significantly in taste—and nutrition—from other nuts.

In fact, they possess a somewhat sweet and powdery taste reminiscent of a sweet potato.

12. Dried Sage (1,207 mg per 100g)

Another dried herb, and another polyphenol-rich addition to the list.

Sage (Salvia officinalis) grows in the Mediterranean region and belongs to the mint family.

It is an incredibly flavorful herb, and it enjoys popularity worldwide.

Perhaps sage is most well known for its use in sage and onion stuffing, a traditional accompaniment to roast chicken or turkey.

The herb contains a wealth of phenolic acids, with significant amounts of carnosic acid, a polyphenolic compound believed to have neuroprotective effects (15, 16).

13. Dried Rosemary (1,018 mg per 100g)

Rosemary is a potent herb that imparts a delicious flavor to various dishes.

Picture of Rosemary - a Food High in Polyphenols.

Commonly used in Italian cuisine, it makes a tasty combination with tomato-based recipes.

Regarding its nutritional properties, rosemary is packed with polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids.

Most notably, it contains rosmarinic acid, a polyphenol structurally similar to caffeic acid found in coffee.

14. Dried Spearmint (956 mg per 100g)

As the name suggests, spearmint is another species from the mint family of plants.

Spearmint has a substantial polyphenol content, containing various hydroxycinnamic acids, a class of phenolic acids (17).

Similar to peppermint, it is popular in dental hygiene products for its refreshing and pleasant taste.

Spearmint also works well for culinary purposes, often being paired with lamb in various dishes.

15. Dried Thyme (878 mg per 100g)

Thyme is another of the popular Italian herbs, and just like the others, it contains an array of phenols.

Most significantly, these include hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids (18).

Its intense flavor profile means that you only need a small amount, and both dry and fresh thyme elevate the taste of many dishes.

16. Wild Lowbush Blueberries (836 mg per 100g)

If you haven’t tried wild blueberries yet, they’re definitely worth a taste.

Wild Lowbush Blueberries on a Vine With a Green Leaf.

“Lowbush” simply indicates they grow naturally along the ground.

These blueberries are smaller and less sweet than typical grocery store varieties, but they have a richer flavor and a higher polyphenol content.

In this regard, they rank as one of the best sources of polyphenols, boasting numerous anthocyanins (19).

17. Blackcurrant (758 mg per 100g)

Compared to blueberries, blackcurrants boast a tarter, sour flavor profile.

Similar to elderberries, blackcurrants have a versatile range of uses, commonly being used to make jam, jelly, tea, and even candy.

The flavor is very popular, and a wide variety of blackcurrant-flavored products available.

However, many of these products are high in sugar, making it advisable to stick to the fruit.

Blackcurrants provide a range of phenolic acids and flavonoids (20).

18. Capers (654 mg per 100g)

Capers are not only delicious but they’re also a top source of flavonoid polyphenols (21).

Botanically known as Capparis spinosa, capers are small, pea-sized condiments that bursting with flavor.

Their taste is intriguing, being somewhat sweet yet notably salty.

Capers frequently accompany salmon dishes, and they are a staple side for salmon sashimi lovers.

19. Black Olives (569 mg per 100g)

Black olives are packed with flavor.

Black Olives: a Fruit Very High in Polyphenols.

Beyond their monounsaturated fat content, they offer nutritional value through their polyphenol content.

Specifically, black olives provide phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tyrosols.

One notable polyphenol in the tyrosol family of compounds is oleuropein, with research showing it may have beneficial effects on blood pressure and inflammation (22, 23)

20. Highbush Blueberries (560 mg per 100g)

In contrast to their lowbush counterparts, highbush blueberries are widely cultivated. One reason for this is that they are larger, juicier, and sweeter than wild lowbush varieties.

However, their depth of flavor is not quite as pronounced, and they have a slightly lower polyphenol count.

Despite this, highbush blueberries are available in most food stores, so they’re one of the best ways to get polyphenols into our diet.

Among other benefits, daily blueberry consumption may help to improve cognition and blood pressure (24, 25).

21. Hazelnuts (495 mg per 100g)

The hazelnut is the first nut to make the list, and it contains a significant amount of flavonoids (26).

Hazelnuts have a unique taste which goes well with a variety of flavors, making the nut a popular choice for a wide range of food products.

Among these, it is possible to find all sorts of hazelnut dishes and products, from hazelnut soup to hazelnut coffee and syrup.

In addition to its flavor profile, hazelnuts also offer health benefits. Randomized, controlled trials demonstrate that hazelnuts positively impact the lipid (cholesterol) profile (27, 28).

22. Pecan Nut (493 mg per 100g)

Following closely behind hazelnuts is the pecan nut.

Not only is this one of the best nut sources of polyphenols, but it’s also one of the most adored nuts, featuring prominently in popular desserts like pecan pie.

Pecans are packed with various flavonoids and are extremely nutrient-dense (29).

The Yellowy Brown Soybean Flour on a White Surface.

23. Soy Flour (466 mg per 100g)

Soy flour provides a range of polyphenolic compounds known as isoflavonoids (30).

These compounds are also available in most soy-based products.

For instance, traditional Japanese foods like miso, natto and tofu are also good sources.

24. Plum (377 mg per 100g)

Plums are small, dark purple fruit that are abundant in numerous polyphenols.

Like many purple plant foods, plums offer a range of anthocyanin flavonoids as well as flavanols, flavonols, and phenolic acids (31).

This little purple fruit has a decent nutrient profile, supplying significant amounts of vitamin C.

25. Green Olives (346 mg per 100g)

Similar to their black counterparts, green olives provide a range of healthy compounds.

In the same fashion as black olives, the standout here is oleuropein, which has a range of potential benefits.

However, oleuropein is far from the only healthful compound in green olives, and they are full of flavonoids, phenolic acids and tyrosols (32).

26. Dried Basil (322 mg per 100g)

Similar to the other herbs in the mint family, basil has some great nutritional properties.

For one thing, dried basil contains significant amounts of polyphenols, and an especially high phenolic acid content (33).

Often dubbed “the king of herbs”, basic adds exceptional flavor to a range of dishes and products, with pesto being a notable example.

Long celebrated as a medical herb in India, randomized studies suggest that basil may help to normalize blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol profiles (34).

27. Curry Powder (285 mg per 100g)

A Serving of Curry Powder on a White Surface.

First of all, curry powder isn’t a singular ingredient.

In fact, it is a blend of herbs and spices, each offering beneficial compounds.

Curry powder tends to contain ingredients such as coriander, cumin, ginger, cinnamon, turmeric, cardamom, and black pepper.

Due to all these different herbs and spices, curry powder provides a wide range of nutrients.

A randomized, controlled trial indicated that curry powder induces improvements in endothelial flow-mediated vasodilation after eating a meal (35).

28. Sweet Cherry (274 mg per 100g)

Sweet cherries are one of the world’s most popular fruits due to their juicy, refreshing taste.

This little fruit has a deep and intense red/purple color reminiscent of blood.

Like other dark red and blue fruit, cherries are rich in polyphenols from anthocyanins (36).

Interestingly, there are numerous varieties of sweet cherries, each offering a slightly different taste.

29. Artichoke Heads (260 mg per 100g)

Artichokes are among the best-tasting vegetables.

In addition to a variety of flavones, they contain a compound called caffeoylquinic acid (37).

Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) is purported to possess various antibacterial, anticancer and antihistaminic biological actions (38).

Although boiling seems to be a popular method of cooking this vegetable, roasted artichoke tastes delicious.

30. Blackberry (260 mg per 100g)

As their color suggests, blackberries are a fruit rich in anthocyanin polyphenols.

In addition, they also contain various flavanols, flavonols, and phenolic acids (39).

Blackberries make an irresistible combination with some heavy cream, and they are one of the tastiest polyphenol sources.

31. Roasted Soybean (246 mg per 100g)

Roasted Soybeans on a Wooden Bowl.

Otherwise known as dry roasted soybeans, people make this soybean product by roasting them in the oven until they are golden on the outside.

Like all soy products, roasted soybeans are a big source of isoflavonoids (40).

They are a popular and nutritious snack.

32. Milk Chocolate (236 mg per 100g)

Some may wonder why milk chocolate is listed here.

Despite its high sugar content, it still contains a notable quantity of polyphenols from its cocoa content.

However, it is preferable to opt for darker chocolate varieties as these offer more polyphenols and less sugar.

33. Strawberry (235 mg per 100g)

Strawberries are among the most beloved fruits, and they grow around much of the world.

In addition to their delicious taste, strawberries boast significant health credentials. First of all, this bright red fruit supplies a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids (41).

Additionally, strawberries offer a significant dose of vitamin C.

Several evidence-based reviews on the health benefits of strawberries found that they may help to downregulate inflammation and improve cardiovascular risk factors (42, 43).

34. Red Chicory (235 mg per 100g)

Red chicory is a popular vegetable in the Mediterranean region of Europe, and it has a slightly bitter and peppery taste.

Otherwise known as radicchio, this vegetable commonly features in salads for both its flavor and vibrant color.

Red chicory also boasts a decent polyphenol content, supplying a large amount of caffeoylquinic acid and other phenolic acids (44).

Pair it with some leafy greens, olives, cherry tomatoes, vinegar and olive oil for a flavorful salad.

35. Raspberries (215 mg per 100g)

A Clump of Fresh Raspberries,

Raspberries are incredibly flavorful berries, known for their soft texture and sweet flavor.

These delicious berries are full of anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and phenolic acids.

In a four-week trial, a daily cup of red raspberries had a beneficial effect on blood sugar control and the lipid (cholesterol) profile of (45).

36. Filtered Coffee (214 mg per 100g)

Drinks can be a rich source of polyphenols too, and coffee is a great example of that.

There are various ways to make this drink, and you can use paper filters, French press, or filter coffee makers.

Coffee contains large amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids and alkylphenols (46).

We can see and taste the flavors of these compounds through the dark, black appearance and bitter taste that coffee exhibits.

37. Dried Ginger (202 mg per 100g)

With ginger, it seems that people either love it or hate it.

Dried ginger boasts a pale yellow appearance with a strong and spicy aroma. Its taste mirrors this, with a strong, spicy and warming flavor.

Chemically, ginger is rich in caffeic acid and contains gingerol, a compound belonging to a class of polyphenols known as hydroxyphenylpropenes (47).

Notably, research suggests that gingerols possess anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity (48).

38. Wholegrain Hard Wheat Flour (201 mg per 100g)

Wholegrain hard wheat flour is simply flour made from ‘hard wheat,’ which has an exceptionally high protein (and thus gluten) content, thereby providing a soft and sticky texture in baked goods.

Wholegrain hard wheat flour contains a considerable amount of polyphenols, and these include phenolic acids and alkylphenols (49).

39. Prunes (194 mg per 100g)

Picture of Flavonol-rich Prunes (Dried Plums).

Prunes are simply dried plums. offering many of the same health benefits as their fresh counterparts.

Prunes contain a flavonol known as quercetin and a range of hydroxycinnamic acids (50).

40. Almonds (187 mg per 100g)

Almonds have an interesting taste, and people seem to either love them or hate them.

Containing a decent supply of polyphenolic compounds, almonds are particularly high in hydroxybenzoic acid.

Researchers believe hydroxybenzoic acids may potentially have beneficial effects for cardiovascular health, although more research is needed (51).

41. Black Grape (169 mg per 100g)

Black grapes contain a range of compounds including anthocyanins, flavanols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes (52).

Perhaps the most famous among these is resveratrol, which has received considerable media attention as the “healthy” compound in red wine.

The black color of grapes is due to a higher concentration of anthocyanin polyphenols compared to green/red grapes.

42. Red Onion (168 mg per 100g)

Despite the name, red onions tend to be more of a purple color in appearance.

As colorful produce tends to be highest in polyphenols, red beats yellow onions on this list.

The particular compounds we can find in red onions include anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids (53).

Red onions have a slightly sweet taste when cooked, and they taste a little strong and spicy in their raw state.

43. Green Chicory (166 mg per 100g)

Picture of Green Chicory Leaves and Flowers.

Green chicory contains a good source of phenolic acids, notably cichoric acid and caffeoylquinic acid (54).

As a green leafy plant, it often features in salads.

However, there is an interesting alternative use of chicory: coffee.

To make chicory coffee, the producers roast the plant and then mix it with roasted coffee for a slightly milder, less bitter drink.

Green chicory also contains a substantial amount of beta-carotene and vitamin K1.

44. Fresh Thyme (163 mg per 100g)

Fresh thyme earns the distinction of being the first fresh herb on this list.

This polyphenol-rich herb has an even more delicious flavor in its fresh form, and it works amazingly well at enhancing recipes.

Like its dried counterpart, fresh thyme contains large quantities of flavonoids and phenolic acids (55).

45. Maize Flour (153 mg per 100g)

Maize flour represents another grain on the list, and it contains several phenolic acids, including trans-ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid (56).

Made from ground corn, it is a common staple food in several countries, with Mexico being a particularly notable example.

Maize is one of the most prevalent crops in the world.

46. Tempeh (148 mg per 100g)

Tempeh, a traditional fermented soy-based food originating in Indonesia, has gained global popularity.

Tempeh is rich in polyphenols and possesses a notably wide range of isoflavonoids (57).

Whole Grain Rye and its Seeds.

47. Whole Grain Rye Flour (143 mg per 100g)

Rye, a type of grass cultivated around the world, is a popular grain for bread-making and offers various polyphenolic acids and alkylphenols (58, 59).

While not as widely popular as wheat, it contains more nutrients and provides a higher fiber content than refined wheat flour.

48. Apple (136 mg per 100g)

Does an apple a day really keep the doctor away?

Perhaps not, but apples do provide a moderate amount of polyphenols in the form of flavonoids (60).

As a popular staple food, apples feature prominently in desserts and offer a modest amount of fiber, vitamins, and minerals (61).

49. Spinach (119 mg per 100g)

Spinach is one of the most nutrient-dense green vegetables, providing substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals.

This leafy green also has a significant flavonoid content, being high in compounds like spinacetin and patuletin (62).

As a result of the popular cartoon Popeye, spinach is famous for its (non-heme) iron content.

50.Shallot (113 mg per 100g)

Shallots are part of the onion family, belong to the Allium genus, and enhance the flavor of numerous dishes.

Shallots are one of the most polyphenol-rich root vegetables, supplying flavonoids such as quercetin and phenolic (hydroxybenzoic) acids (63).

Dried Lemon Verbena Leaves,

51. Dried Lemon Verbena (106 mg per 100g)

Also known as vervain, lemon verbena provides a range of flavonoids and the hydroxycinnamic acid verbascoside (64).

Native to South America, lemon verbeba’s unique strong scent has made it popular in perfume, toiletries, herbal tea, and for flavoring dishes.

52. Black Tea (102 mg per 100g)

Black tea contains a wide range of flavonoids, particularly catechins, flavonols, and phenolic acids (65).

Perhaps black tea is most famous in the United Kingdom, where people tend to drink it with a small amount of added milk.

Rather impressively, the British drink 165 million cups of tea per day.

53. Red Wine (101 mg per 100g)

Red wine boasts a diverse array of various flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and various other polyphenols (66).

However, while red wine may potentially have some benefits, discussions around the health effects of the drink are controversial. Some studies suggest wine may have benefits for cardiac health, but there are also clear potential harms (67).

It should also be noted that red wine, as a source of alcohol, can be addictive to some individuals.

The drink containing polyphenols should not be a reason to start drinking it, and various other foods contain them.

54. Green Tea (89 mg per 100g)

Green tea is popular throughout the world, but especially so in China and Japan.

While green tea doesn’t have the highest polyphenol content around, it still provides a decent range of these compounds.

Similar to black tea, green tea provides an assortment of flavonoids and phenolic acids (68).

Soy Yogurt: Rich is Isoflavonones.

55. Soy Yogurt (84 mg per 100g)

Soy yogurts are an alternative to dairy for vegans and those with lactose intolerance issues.

As with all soy products, soy yogurts provide a range of isoflavonoids, such as genistin (69).

56. Yellow Onion (74 mg per 100g)

Adding flavor to numerous dishes, onions are one of the most popular vegetables.

Despite the ‘yellow onion’ name, onions are actually a pale green to white color, surrounded by light brown skin.

Belonging to the Allium genus, they have a notable content of the flavonoid quercetin (70).

57. Soy Meat (73 mg per 100g)

Also known as texturized vegetable protein (TVP), soy meat provides a range of isoflavonoids (71).

However, soy meat, a by-product of the soybean oil extraction process, often lacks flavor unless seasoned well.

In other words, it requires seasoning or should be used in flavorful dishes.

58. Whole Grain Wheat Flour (71 mg per 100g)

Whole grain flour, derived from processing the whole wheat kernel, contains the bran, germ, and endosperm.

In contrast, white (refined) flour contains only the endosperm.

Whole grain wheat flour supplies polyphenols from the alkylphenol class of compounds (72).

Glass of Apple Juice Next To An Apple.59. Pure Apple Juice (68 mg per 100g)

Pure apple juice, made by simple pressing apples, contains a range of flavonoids and phenolic acids (73).

However, whole fruit consumption is preferable due to its higher fiber content.

Alternatively, opt for cloudy apple juice which contains more apple solids than clear varieties.

60. Pure Pomegranate Juice (66 mg per 100g)

Many juices contain polyphenols and pomegranate juice is no different.

To be specific, it contains various flavonoids and phenolic acids – most notably a compound known as punicalagin (74).

Interestingly, this polyphenol is unique to pomegranates, and cell line and animal studies suggest it may have anticancer properties. However, no research has demonstrated these effects in human participants (75).

As with apple juice, it is generally better to opt for whole fruit rather than just the juice.

61. Extra Virgin Olive Oil (62 mg per 100g)

Extra virgin olive oil offers an extensive range of polyphenols, including flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids and tyrosols (76).

When tasting olive oil by itself, you may notice a slight peppery taste at the back of your throat.

The cause of this taste is oleocanthal, a polyphenolic compound contained within olives.

62. Black Beans (59 mg per 100g)

Black beans are a small, popular legume that enjoy popularity throughout South America.

In terms of their nutrition profile, they provide both carbohydrates and protein, with notable fiber, iron, and magnesium content.

Similar to other plant foods with a purple/black color, black beans supply various anthocyanin flavonoids (77).

Picture of Two Peaches: The Sweet Fruit Rich in Flavonoids.

63. Peach (59 mg per 100g)

The peach (Prunus persica) is a stone fruit with a juicy flesh and soft, smooth skin.

Native to China, peaches now grow throughout the world.

Alongside a reasonable dose of vitamin C, peaches also provide polyphenols in the form of flavanols and phenolic acids (78).

64. Pure Blood Orange Juice (56 mg per 100g)

Blood oranges, native to China and the Southern Mediterranean region, offer large amounts of vitamin C alongside a range of flavonoids and phenolic acids (79).

Blood oranges are particularly high in a compound named hesperidin, believed to be a major contributor to the benefits of citrus fruit.

65. Cumin (55 mg per 100g)

Cumin, a common spice in both European and Southern Asian cuisine, has a deep, slightly spicy, and warming taste.

Regarding the spice’s health properties, it is rich in various minerals, especially iron. It also contains a large amount of kaempferol, a flavonol present in cruciferous vegetables (80).

66. Pure Grapefruit Juice (53 mg per 100g)

Grapefruit juice is yet another polyphenol-rich drink.

The taste of this fruit is somewhat sweet, sour, and also slightly bitter, which the polyphenolic compounds it contains may explain.

In particular, grapefruit is a provider of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids (81).

Dried White Beans in a Bowl.

67. White Bean (51 mg per 100g)

White beans are a legume native to the Americas.

There are many different types of white bean, such as cannellini, lima (butterbean), and navy beans.

These beans are a good source of vitamin C, magnesium, and offer high levels of catechin and kaempferol from the flavonoid class of polyphenols (82).

68. Chinese Cinnamon (48 mg per 100g)

There are four main varieties of cinnamon;

  • Cassia
  • Ceylon
  • Korintje
  • Saigon

Known as ‘Chinese cinnamon’, cassia contains large amounts of cinnamic acid and a phytochemical called coumarin (83).

However, coumarin has the potential to cause liver damage at high doses, so cassia cinnamon requires moderate usage (84).

Ceylon cinnamon does not have this health concern, so it may be a better option.

69. Pure Orange Juice (46 mg per 100g)

Orange juice is high in flavonoids and phenolic acids, with a particularly high ferulic acid content (85).

It also provides a good amount of vitamin C and potassium.

70. Broccoli (45 mg per 100g)

Broccoli is a cruciferous vegetable that grows around the world.

In addition to being an impressive source of vitamin C, it also contains decent amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids (86).

A Box of Fresh Redcurrants.

71. Redcurrant (43 mg per 100g)

Redcurrants (Ribes rubrum) belong to the gooseberry family of plants and they grow natively in Western Europe.

These small berries have a bright red, shiny appearance, and they supply a moderate amount of vitamin C.

They have a slightly tart and bitter taste due to their wide-ranging polyphenol content, which includes flavonoids, phenolic acids, and stilbenes (87).

72. Soy Tofu (42 mg per 100g)

While not as polyphenol-rich as tempeh, tofu is also made from soy and shares a similar appearance.

Like all soy products, tofu provides a range of isoflavonoids (88).

73. Pure Lemon Juice (42 mg per 100g)

Similar to all citrus fruits, pure lemon juice provides a large amount of vitamin C.

Thanks to the sour nature of lemons, lemon juice has a very tart taste, which some people find hard to drink.

Similar to orange juice, lemons are full of flavonoid compounds and contain an additional polyphenol called phlorin (89).

74. Whole Grain Oats (37 mg per 100g)

Whole grain oats are cereal grains, and the edible part is the oat seed.

Commonly consumed as breakfast cereal, oats provide magnesium and iron and contain flavonoids such as apigenin and quercetin (90).

Apricots: a Delicious Fruit Full of Phytonutrients.

75. Apricot (34 mg per 100g)

Apricots are small fruits with a bright, yellow-orange color, a smooth, sometimes furry skin, and a soft and juicy interior.

The fruit is rich in phytonutrients from flavonoids and phenolic acids, in addition to high amounts of vitamins A and C (91).

76. Caraway Seeds (33 mg per 100g)

Caraway seeds, also known as meridian fennel, originate from Italy in times of Ancient Rome.

Often used to flavor recipes, caraway seeds are a common ingredient in bread and casseroles.

The seeds contain relatively high amounts of two polyphenols: the flavonoid kaempferol and a phenolic acid called caffeic acid (92).

Randomized studies suggest that caraway may potentially have value for treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (93).

77. Refined Rye Flour (31 mg per 100g)

Refined rye flour contains the same polyphenols as rye—alkylphenols and phenolic acids—but in a smaller amount (94).

However, it is generally better to limit refined flour intake and instead opt for the whole grain version.

78. Asparagus (29 mg per 100g)

Asparagus is a flowering plant that produces long, edible stems, and it is often served as a side dish to foods like steak.

It provides a wide range of vitamins and minerals and contains a large amount of the flavonol quercetin (95).

79. Walnut (28 mg per 100g)

Walnuts Are High in Phenolic Acids.

Walnuts are nutritious nuts that are rich in minerals, protein, and healthy fats.

While not as polyphenol-rich as almonds and pecans, walnuts contain a high amount of ellagic acid, a type of phenolic acid (96).

Taste-wise, walnuts are slightly dry with an earthy taste and a hint of bitterness.

80. Potato (28 mg per 100g)

Potatoes, especially popular in English-speaking world, are a starchy root vegetable.

They provide high levels of vitamin C, potassium, and a range of B vitamins, along with polyphenols like caffeic acid and caffeoylquinic acid (97, 98).

81. Ceylon Cinnamon (27 mg per 100g)

As mentioned earlier, ceylon is one of the four varieties of cinnamon.

Ceylon tends to have lower polyphenol content than cassia (Chinese) cinnamon but lacks the high levels of potentially toxic coumarin.

Ceylon cinnamon primarily grows in Sri Lanka, and it contains a range of polyphenols from phenolic acids (99).

82. Dried Parsley (25 mg per 100g)

Dried parsley, a herb originating from the Mediterranean region, is nutrient-rich and provides large amounts of vitamins A and C, iron, and calcium.

It also contains a class of polyphenol called furanocoumarins (100).

Whole and Half Nectarine Next to a Leaf.

83. Nectarine (25 mg per 100g)

Nectarines closely resemble peaches in appearance but lack the fuzzy skin.

Nectarines offer relatively small amounts of vitamins A and C, but also provide a range of flavonoids and phenolic acids (101).

84. Curly Endive (24 mg per 100g)

Curly endive (var crispum) is a small, wispy green vegetable with curly leaves.

This vegetable provides large amounts of vitamin K1 and the mineral manganese. It is high in polyphenols from the flavonoids class, particularly kaempferol (102).

Endive is a bitter tasting vegetable but becomes somewhat sweeter—and more pleasant—after cooking.

85. Dried Marjoram (23 mg per 100g)

Marjoram, a dried herb originating from Cyprus and Turkey, is slightly similar in taste to oregano.

Consumed either fresh or dry, marjoram adds a herbal and citrus-sweet depth of flavor to various dishes.

The herb contains various phenolic acids and flavonoids, with a particularly high amount of ferulic acid (103).

86. Red Lettuce (23 mg per 100g)

Red lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is just one of the many different types of lettuce.

Like many vegetables, red lettuce provides a good source of beta-carotene and vitamin K1.

It provides a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins, flavones, and flavonols (104).

Red lettuce is almost always eaten in its raw state, and it is a common ingredient in salads.

A Glass of Chocolate Milk.

87. Chocolate Milk (21 mg per 100g) 

Chocolate milk makes this list due to the significant amount of polyphenols in cocoa.

However, it is important to ensure that chocolate milk contains cocoa rather than ‘chocolate flavor.’

88. Quince (19 mg per 100g)

Quince, a fruit native to South-West Asia and Eastern Europe, resembles a cross between an apple and a pear.

However, unlike pears and apples, there is no sweet taste and quince has a bitter and tart flavor. For this reason, the fruit is rarely eaten in its raw state and tends to be used for jams and various other preserves.

Quince contains a range of polyphenols from flavanols, flavonols, and hydroxycinnamic acids (105).

89. Escarole (18 mg per 100g)

Escarole is part of the chicory group of vegetables, but it is slightly different in appearance to curly endive.

For one thing, it has broader, thicker leaves and lacks the ‘curlyness’. However, both of these green vegetables are generally used in the same way.

Escarole contains several kaempferol flavonols (106).

90. Soy Milk (18 mg per 100g)

Soy milk is a processed soy product with a similar appearance to dairy milk.

Similar to other soy-based food products, soy milk is a rich source of isoflavonoids (107).

Pomelo: Their Juice Contains a Variety of Polyphenols.

91. Pomelo Juice (18 mg per 100g)

The pomelo (Citrus maxima) is a very large citrus that resemles a large grapefruit.

Pomelo juice contains the polyphenolic compounds naringin and phlorin (108).

92. Rapeseed Oil (17 mg per 100g)

Rapeseed, also known as Canola, is a vegetable oil that contains a moderate amount of polyphenols.

These polyphenols include phenolic acids and alkylmethoxyphenols (109).

93. Pear (17 mg per 100g)

Pears, juicy fruits with a sweet and mild flavor, supply a moderate amount of vitamin C, and various flavonoids and phenolic acids (110).

94. Bean Sprouts (15 mg per 100g)

Beansprouts are a crunchy vegetable with an extremely high water content.

Due to their high water content, bean sprouts provide negligible amounts of calories, carbohydrate, fat, and protein.

However, they contain polyphenols in the form of isoflavonoids, hydroxybenzoic acid, and hydroxycinnamic acid (111).

Grapes: This Juicy Fruit Contains a Range of Health-Protective Compounds.

95. Green Grape (15 mg per 100g)

Green grapes contain fewer polyphenols than their darker cousins, with their lighter color determined by their relative lack of anthocyanins (112).

Botanically berries, they predominantly grow in the Americas, Australia, China, and Europe.

96. Carrot (14 mg per 100g)

The carrot, a bright orange root vegetable native to Europe and South-Western Asia, is now cultivated worldwide.

Renowned for being a particularly rich source of the vitamin A precursor, beta-carotene, carrots are also high in polyphenols from phenolic acids (113).

Carrots are a versatile vegetable and people enjoy them raw, in recipes, as a side dish, and made into juice or soup.

97. Vinegar (21 mg per 100g) 

Vinegar is an interesting food ingredient that is primarily (15-20%) acetic acid.

Although it doesn’t contain a significant amount of any one compound, vinegar provides a substantial variety of different polyphenolic compounds.

Specifically, there are 32 known polyphenols in vinegar from flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes, hydroxybenzaldehydes, and tyrosols (114).

98. Soy Cheese (12 mg per 100g)

Soy cheese is a vegan version of the popular dairy food.

It is typically made from soy protein, vegetable oil, and various bulking agents and thickeners.

Due to its soy content, soy cheese provides a range of isoflavonoids.

A Glass of Sparkling White Wine.

99. White Wine (10 mg per 100g)

White wine has a modest polyphenol content compared to its red counterpart. These polyphenols consist of various phenolic acids, stilbenes, flavonoids, hydroxybenzaldehydes, hydroxycoumarins, and tyrosols (115).

Lighter in color, it lacks the anthocyanin content of red wines.

Although we call this type of wine ‘white’, the color ranges from pale yellow to light amber.

100. Rosé Wine (10 mg per 100g)

Rosé wine is made with black grapes, but unlike red wine, the grape skins are removed after only a few days.

As a result, rosé wine has a light pink color.

Similar to its red and white siblings, rosé wine contains a wealth of polyphenols from phenolic acids, stilbenes, tyrosols and flavonoids (116).

Key Point: Berries, cocoa, herbs, and spices tend to be the richest food sources of polyphenols.

10 Fruit Highest in Polyphenols

For convenience, here are the ten fruits with the highest polyphenol score from the top 100 foods.

Fruit Polyphenol Content (per 100g)
1. Black Chokeberry 1756 mg
2. Black Elderberry 1359 mg
3. Wild Lowbush Blueberry 836 mg
4. Blackcurrant 758 mg
5. Black Olive 569 mg
6. Highbush Blueberry 560 mg
7. Plum 377 m
8. Green Olive 346 mg
9. Sweet Cherry 274 mg
10. Blackberry 260 mg
Key Point: Black Chokeberry is number one, and it has an extremely bitter and astringent taste.

10 Highest Polyphenol Vegetable Sources

This table shows the ten vegetables with the largest total concentration of polyphenols;

Vegetable Polyphenol Content (per 100g)
1. Artichoke Heads 260 mg
2. Red Chicory 235 mg
3. Red Onion 168 mg
4. Green Chicory 166 mg
5. Spinach 119 mg
6. Shallot 113 mg
7. Yellow Onion 74 mg
8. Broccoli 45 mg
9. Asparagus 29 mg
10. Potato 28 mg
Key Point: Artichoke heads and red chicory are easily the top two vegetables for polyphenols.

10 Herbs/Spices/Others Highest in Polyphenols

Here are the ten most polyphenol-rich foods which are neither fruit nor vegetables;

Food Polyphenol Content (per 100g)
1. Cloves 15188 mg
2. Dried Peppermint 11960 mg
3. Star Anise 5460 mg
4. Cocoa Powder 3448 mg
5. Mexican Oregano 2319 mg
6. Celery Seed 2094 mg
7. Dark Chocolate 1664 mg
8. Flaxseed Meal 1528 mg
9. Chestnut 1215 mg
10. Dried Sage 1207 mg
Key Point: Cloves are the most polyphenol-dense food on earth, but we generally only consume them in small amounts. For this reason, cocoa powder might be the most widely consumed source of polyphenols.

Final Thoughts

As shown in this guide, consuming polyphenols from a range of different foods may have some potential health benefits.

However, just because a food is high in polyphenols doesn’t automatically mean we should include it in our diet.

There are many determinants of what makes a food healthy or not. Predominantly focusing on nutrient-rich foods close to their ‘whole food’ form is one of the best ways to stay healthy.

And that is the case whether the food in considered to be high in polyphenols or not.

See these guides to learn more about popular nutritional topics.